ANTICHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER GUINEENSE LEAVES AND SEEDS

Authors

  • Offiong, Jonathan Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Adewuni, D Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Lawal, T Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Ejiofor, D Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Fatoba,T Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Bello, J Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Agbabiaje, O Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Okpuzor, J Department of Cell Biology & Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Ajonuma, L Department of Physiology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Lagos, Nigeria

Keywords:

Acetycholinerase, Antioxidan, Flavonoid, Neurodegenerative disease, Piper guineense leaf and Piper guineense seed

Abstract

Introduction: Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's are chronic irreversible neurological disorders based on neuronal degeneration, which are closely related to age, and, currently, it constitutes a major public health priority with substantial negative individual, social, and economic impacts globally. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects memory and cognitive functions. Treatment for AD has severe side effects with the current drugs that has limited efficacy, so there is a need for sourcing alternative means of treatment using natural products that have been exploited in traditional medicine but yet to be validated scientifically. Phytochemicals are considered to possess promising therapeutic targets in diverse human ailments, including neurodegenerative disorders. They can exert a broad range of neuroprotective efficacy through diverse mechanisms of actions. Piper guineense (black pepper) leaves and seeds were extracted using 70% ethanol(v/v) and subsequently investigated for in vitro acetycholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, free radical scavenging activities, as well as total flavonoid and phenol contents. Materials and Methods: The study investigated the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the ethanol extracts of Piper guineense leaves and seeds using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 5,5’-Dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) respectively. The leaves and seeds of Piper guineense were purchased, authenticated at the University of Lagos, Department of Botany Herbarium. The leaves and seeds were air dried at room temperature, pulverized and phytochemicals extracted with 70% ethanol. The extract was further dried under reduced pressure in an oven at 40oC after which it was stored in a refrigerator at 4oC prior to analysis. All assays were performed using a 96- well Microplate Reader. Donapezil was used as standard Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Results: The ethanolic extract of Piper guineense leaves and seeds demonstrated in vitro AChE inhibitory activity in a dose dependent manner with IC50 value of 166.921µgml-1 and 92.13????g ml-1, respectively. The leaves extract showed a dose-dependent DPPH free radical scavenging ability with IC50 of 13 while the seeds extract exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 49.81µg ml-1. The flavonoid content of the leaves and seeds extracts were determined as 395.44 ± 0.262mg g-1 QUE (Quercetin equivalent) and 10.689 ± 3.95 mg g-1 QUE, respectively. The total phenol contents were 941.11 ± 0.164 mg g-1 GAE (Gallic acid equivalent) and 12.345 ± 4.00 mg g-1 GAE, respectively. The ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds showed the scavenging potential of DPPH free radical, thus suggesting that the extracts have potential to prevent free radical induced oxidative damage which is directly related to neurodegenerative diseases. In the same vein the extracts exhibited inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase at different concentrations. Conclusion: These findings showed that Piper guineense leaves and seeds are potential sources of antioxidants and natural AChE inhibitors that could be useful in the management of neurodegenerative diseases

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Published

2024-04-17

How to Cite

Jonathan, O., Adewuni, D., Lawal, T., Ejiofor, . D., Fatoba, T., Bello, . J., Agbabiaje, . O., Okpuzor, . J., & Ajonuma, . L. (2024). ANTICHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PIPER GUINEENSE LEAVES AND SEEDS. Medical and Health Sciences European Journal, 8(2), 43–53. Retrieved from https://aspjournals.org/Journals/index.php/mhsej/article/view/602