DEVELOPMENT OF A MATERNAL HEALTH MONITORING DEVICE WITH OPTIMIZED BATTERY USAGE FOR VITAL SIGNS CAPTURING IN PREGNANCY

Pregnancy is a complex physiological process that can be associated with various maternal health risks. Pregnancy-related maternal health is essential to the health of the expecting mother and the unborn child. Early identification of potential risks can significantly improve maternal and foetal outcomes. This research deals with the development of optimized battery implemented maternal health monitoring device which measures simultaneously, the key health parameters: heart rate (HR), blood pressure and body temperature. The device incorporates various sensors such as MAX32664D biometric sensor hub and MAX32102 for vital signs measurement. The acquired data is processed using ESP32 and uploaded to ThingSpeak for future viewing and analysis.  However, one of the key challenges faced by e-health devices is limited battery life. Optimizing battery usage is crucial to ensure uninterrupted monitoring and enhance the usability of e-health devices. This write-up provides an improved e-health monitoring device for vital signs measurement using users’ engagement and behaviour modification techniques

EFFECT OF GERMINATION PERIOD ON THE NUTRIENT AND ANTINUTRIENT CONTENTS OF FLOURS FROM RED AND BROWN VARIETIES OF PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN) SEEDS

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of germination period on the nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of red and brown pigeon pea flours. The red and brown pigeon pea seeds were cleaned, steeped for 6, 8 and 10 h and germinated for 48 h, 72 h and 96 h, respectively and processed into flours, while the flours produced from the ungerminated red and brown pigeon pea seeds were used as control samples. The flours obtained were analyzed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and anti-nutrient contents using standard methods. The proximate composition of the samples showed that the flours produced from the red pigeon pea seeds had a range of 6.24 – 9.34% moisture, 10.37 – 20.95% crude protein, 1.21 – 1.12% fat, 2.32 – 3.32% ash, 3.14 – 4.23% crude fibre, 76.75-61.07% carbohydrate, and 329.29 – 338.10KJ/100g energy, whereas that of the brown pigeon pea flours had a range of 6.44-9.77% moisture, 10.47-23.69% crude protein, 1.23-1.13% fat, 2.42-3.13% ash, 3.18-4.31% crude fibre, 76.26-57.99% carbohydrate and 358.18-336.83KJ/100g energy respectively. The mineral composition of the flours produced from the red pigeon pea seeds had a range of 103.85-118.76 mg/100g calcium, 213.10-236.75mg/100g potassium, 140.30-165.40mg/100g phosphorus, 114.04-132.79mg/100g magnesium, 7.97-10.94 mg/100g sodium, and 5.08-6.49 mg/100g zinc, while that of the brown pigeon pea flours were 107.95-121.22 mg/100g calcium, 2.57-293.21 mg/100g potassium, 140.30-199.08mg/100g phosphorus, 118.12-152.67 mg/100g magnesium, 8.33-11.64 mg/100g sodium and 5.19-7.99 mg/100g zinc respectively. The vitamin composition of the red pigeon pea flours showed that the ascorbic acid, thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, folic acid and vitamin A ranged from 3.53-4.63mg/100g, 1.17-1.46 mg/100g, 2.16-3.20 mg/100g, 1.02-1.36 mg/100g, 1.08-1.28 mg/100g and 2.13-2.57 mg/100g, whereas that of the brown pigeon pea flours ranged from 3.97-4.96 mg/100g, 1.36-1.71 mg/100g, 2.46-33 mg/100g, 1.18-1.48 mg/100g, 1.10-1.35 mg/100g and 2.19-2.94 mg/100g, respectively. The anti-nutrient composition of the flours from the red pigeon pea seeds showed that the levels of trypsin inhibitor, tannin, phytate, oxalate, saponin and haemaglutinin were 7.66-1.03 Tiu/g, 1.34-0.78 mg/kg, 4.78-1.15 mg/kg, 3.03-0.45 mg/kg, 2.78-1.21 mg/kg and 7.44-0.30Hui/g, whereas that of the brown pigeon pea flour ranged from 6.33-1.15Tiu/100g, 1.14-0.41mg/kg, 3.98-0.26mg/kg, 2.99-0.17mg/kg, 2.60-1.11 mg/kg and 6.23-0.33 Hui/g, respectively. The result generally showed that the nutrient contents of both the red and brown pigeon pea flours increased significantly (p˂0.05) with increase in steeping and germination time, while their antinutrient contents decreased drastically compared to the raw (control) samples in both varieties of pigeon pea flours. However, the brown pigeon pea flours relatively had high nutrient contents than the red pigeon pea flours, hence, they could be widely utilized in the preparation of a variety of good quality and nutrient-dense food products than the flours derived from red pigeon pea seeds

SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-SPEED POINT-TO-POINT MICROWAVE LINK

This paper details the simulative analysis of a high-speed microwave point-to-point link boasting a data rate of 474.62 Mbit/s over a distance of 47 km. The paper considers University of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT) as Site A and Rivers State University (UST) as Site B. The aim was to devise a robust communication system to facilitate seamless communication network between these two university campuses. The design process involved meticulous consideration of factors such as antenna selection, modulation scheme, and link budget analysis. These considerations were tailored to suit the geographical and environmental characteristics of the chosen sites. Radio link planner simulation tool played a pivotal role in evaluating the system’s performance across various scenarios, taking into account terrain obstacles and weather conditions. The results conclusively demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a reliable microwave point-to-point link between UNIPORT and Rivers State University. The study includes calculations of Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) of 1.09 × 10-4dB, percentage reliability of 99.9999964% and an assessment of the Bit Error Rate (BER) graph to gauge signal quality effectively. These findings underscore the system’s capability for high-speed data transmission, thereby fostering improved connectivity and collaboration between both of the academic institutions.

DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ALLOCATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS FOR IoT DEVICES USING FUZZY LOGIC

This research centers on the implementation of fuzzy logic for dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) within cognitive radio networks (CRNs), specifically tailored for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The ever-growing number of IoT devices and the limited availability of spectrum resources necessitate sophisticated and efficient spectrum allocation methods. Cognitive radio technology facilitates unlicensed secondary users in accessing underutilized spectrum bands, and DSA enables the dynamic assignment of spectrum resources based on demand and availability. Leveraging the capabilities of fuzzy logic, renowned for handling uncertainty and imprecise data, the system intelligently makes decisions concerning spectrum allocation, taking into account factors like signal strength, interference, user priority, and channel conditions. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed Fuzzy Logic-based approach adeptly balances channel availability and interference levels, resulting in a substantial enhancement in Quality of Service (QoS) satisfaction. The QoS satisfaction percentage is computed over the simulation period, offering insights into the overall performance of the system. The simulation results are visually presented through a time-dependent spectrum allocation matrix, providing a lucid representation of how the system adapts to varying conditions. This study and its findings underscore the significance of adaptive and intelligent systems in optimizing spectrum usage, especially in the context of emerging IoT applications

DEVELOPMENT OF SECURITY ALERT SYSTEM USING CUSTOMIZED SPEECH WITH ALARM.

The alarming rate of insecurity of lives and property globally is of great concern to all and sundry. Burglary is one of the most common criminal activities that is causing significant financial and emotional damage in local environment and households, several methods and devices have been developed to overcome this problem. The use of burglar alarm systems as a means of enhancing security cannot be overemphasized as safety of human lives is as important as food, clothing and shelter. Though several security alert systems have been invented in the past, there is still need for more efficient devices to ensure the reduction of insecurity of lives and property to the barest minimal. Hence, the need for innovative devices capable of mitigating this menace of insecurity especially in homes. This work is the development of a security alert system capable of effectively detecting an intruder, after which the security light is turned on, alarm is triggered and an automated voice is played through the speaker depending on the mode of operation the device is switched to. The components of the developed Security Alert Device are: Ultrasonic Sensors, Power Supply Circuit, Microcontroller Circuit, Speaker, Buzzer, Security Light and SD card Module. The device was tested after coupling and it perform excellently, also the overall cost was far lower than the existing price of similar devices in the market.

DESIGN OF AN INTELLIGENT WASTE COLLECTION ROUTE OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK USING DECISION TREE ALGORITHMS FOR A CLOUD-BASED BIG DATA REPOSITORY

Poor waste management is one of the factors that had significant implications for public health. Currently, the process of solid waste collection in most urban cities of developing countries is curbside collection and is marred with poor disposal infrastructure, time consuming and high transportation cost. The study proposes a cloud-based big data repository for solid waste management in Owerri metropolis, Eastern Nigeria, by using a decision tree algorithm for optimizing collection routes. This system will consider factors such as: data storage, real-time processing, cloud resources, data sources, GPS data integration, user accessibility data analytics and reporting. The proposed system will make use of machine learning with decision tree algorithms for waste classification and route optimization, Azure Power BI for data visualization and reporting, and service-oriented architecture with Microsoft Azure platform as a service (PaaS) and Python programming. Azure Data Factory will provide secure and scalable data storage, and IoT Hub will automate the process of ingesting data from bin sensors, IoT devices, or manual data input. In order to ensure optimum use of disposal infrastructures, minimize transportation costs related to trash collection, and increase labor productivity, the system will assist in optimizing waste collection routes for an efficient and effective waste collection process

AN IMPROVEMENT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY ON A MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK (MANET) USING A RULE-BASED OPTIMIZATION (RBO) ALGORITHM

This paper presents the improvement of energy efficiency for mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) using a rule-based optimization (RBO)algorithm and quality of service compensation routing (QSCR) algorithm. The aim is to improve energy efficiency in MANET, while sustaining other quality of service parameters like throughput, and latency. To achieve this, the rule-based optimization algorithm, which is an energy saving algorithm was first developed and its performance on the improvement of energy efficiency in MANET tested by simulation using matlab software. Based on an observed trade-off between energy saving and quality of service (QoS) in using RBO algorithm, the quality-of-service compensation routing (QSCR) algorithm was also developed using ad-hoc-on-demand distance vector (AODV) and integrated with RBO to improve Quality of Service (QoS) in MANET nodes while still maintaining good energy saving resulting from RBO algorithm only. The performance of the algorithm was also tested bymatlab simulation on the nodes. The result of simulation of the integrated algorithm over 100minutes of communication for throughput reported at 85.40Mb/s, 13.60ms for latency, 49.8475% for remaining energy level and 5.3236J/secs for energy consumed. The result was validated using k-fold cross validation approach and validation results reported 85.203% throughput, 13.391ms for latency, 49.0765% energy level remaining and 5.25960J/secs of energy consumed. From the result, it was observed that while there is still room for improvement for energy consumption rate, other QoS parameters such as throughput and latency were sustained at very good levels respectively. Recommendations were made to focus on the RBO and further improve the rate of energy control, while integration with QSCR algorithm for a holistic QoS in MANET…

THE RELIABILITY OF THE CIVIL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS OF FARM STRUCTURES: A CASE STUDY OF NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA

This study was carried out to ascertain the acquiescence of structures used for agricultural activities in Nigeria, to International guidelines for residential and industrial buildings. In this research structures used for agricultural productions within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, were appraised to determine their integrity status. Results obtained from the field survey revealed that most of the farm structures within the studied region were constructed with outright disregard to the basic civil and electrical engineering guidelines for buildings construction. It was observed that only 9% of the farm structures were constructed after adequate geotechnical evaluation of the building sites’ soil, 28% of the farm buildings had foundation designs, 89% of the concrete used for the buildings construction did not pass through integrity tests, and 92% of the wall materials (sandcrete blocks) did not undergo mechanical strength tests, to ascertain their suitability for load bearing walls construction. Furthermore, the field observations revealed that 90% of the farm buildings’ electrical wiring was done without any electrical design, 58% of the structures investigated were lacking electrical safety devices, 63% of the materials used for electrical installations were fake electrical materials; while 29% of the electrical terminals were not well secured. Also the findings from the questionnaires administered to the public, established that economic situation and quackery are the major reasons why people use substandard materials for construction of structures

MICROCONTROLLER BASED DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER PARAMETERS MONITORING DEVICE (TPMD) FOR MONITORING/ISOLATING DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER WHEN FAULT IS DETECTED IN A SUBSTATION

The power distribution system is the bridge between the ultimate power users (humans) and the source (generation of power). Therefore, data acquisition from distribution network and their processing for the purposes of monitoring and control of the distribution equipment, lines, voltage and current status in the network, giving rise to the optimization and synchronization of power distribution system for efficient power delivery is important. For advance monitoring and control of the power distribution system from the remote injection substation by substation engineers, a real-time monitoring and control device located at the substations is further designed and simulated with the Proteus Electronics Suite. The data captured by the local monitoring device through its sensors located at transformer substation is transmitted by wireless mean to the monitoring and control unit in the injection substation. The parameters monitored are transformer temperature, transformer oil level, transformer voltage input and output and line voltage, current and faults. The upper threshold value for temperature is 650, voltage of 270 V and current of 300; whereas, the lower threshold value for oil level is 270 litres. Result clearly showed that the designed local monitoring device could efficiently measure the target parameters and classify into “LOW, HIGH OR NORMAL”; relay the data to the control substation and disconnect the substation on a fault condition inimical to the distribution system. The local monitoring device located in the substation complements with the existing state estimation system in the injection substation to improve the monitoring, control, and protection of power distribution system.

EVALUATING THE GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSOIL OF OLEH COMMUNITY IN DELTA STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Geotechnical investigations of subsoil were carried out in parts of Oleh community, Delta State, Southern Nigeria in order to delineate subsoil engineering properties, as well as evaluate the type of foundation that will be most suitable for the area. A total of ten (10) subsoil samples, obtained from two (2) depths (4 m and 8 m) were used to determine the specific gravity, Atterberg limits and particle size of the subsoil. The findings revealed that the specific gravity of the soil samples ranged between 2.52 and 2.85; and the specific gravity of the soil obtained at the 4 m depth was higher, when compared to the soil obtained at the 8 m depth. Additionally, the liquid limits of the soil samples ranged between 25% and 42%; the soils samples plastic limit varied between 13% and 25%; soils samples plastic index ranged from 5% to 17%; and the liquid limit, plastic limits and plastic index of the soil samples obtained at the depth of 4 m, were generally higher than the soil samples obtained at the depth of 8 m. The findings of the particle grain size grading revealed that the study area consists of silt loam, loamy sand and sandy and soils. Data obtained from this study will be useful for geotechnical purposes and these results will benefit to engineers or decision makers in designing building foundation within the study region