OLEORESIN YIELDS, FRAGMENTATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF OLEORESINS FROM FIVE NIGERIAN INDIGENOUS SPICES
Keywords:Spices, oleoresins, chromatography, spectrometry, spectra
The aim of this study is to extract oleoresins from five Nigerian indigenous spices, determine the oleoresin yields, fragment the oleoresins and identify their chemical constituents. Diethyl ether was used to extract the oleoresins from the five spices namely African black pepper (AB), African nutmeg (AN), Alligator pepper (AP), Negro pepper (NP) and Pepperfruit (PF). The oleoresins were then fragmented by means of Gas chromatography – Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Results show that the oleoresin yields (%) of the spices were AB – 7.83, AN – 9.41, AP – 10.81, NP – 11.24 and PF – 8.68. Results from the fragmentation spectra of the oleoresins showed that the spice oleoresins contained substances (chemical constituents) responsible for their spicy flavours in descending order of magnitude as follows: Negro pepper (67) with 6 of them prominent. This was followed by African Black pepper having 53 substances with 5 prominent; African nutmeg had 52 substances with 3 prominent while Pepper fruit had 23 with only one prominent. The flavours of the spices were in line with the number of their chemical constituents.