This study examined the influence of family background on the academic performance of primary school pupils in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study was anchored on Abraham Maslow’s Theory of Motivation. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Two specific objectives guided the study: To ascertain the extent to which parental educational background influences pupils’ academic performance, and to find out the extent to which parental socio-economic status influences pupils’ academic performance. The study targeted pupils, teachers, and parents. The sample size of the study was 337; 286 primary six pupils, 17 teachers and 34 parents from seventeen public primary schools. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the pupils’ participants of the study, automatic inclusion was used for the teachers and convenient sampling technique was used for the parents. The study used focus group discussion schedule, questionnaire, and interview schedule to collect data. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. The findings of the study revealed that parental socio-economic status highly influences pupils’ academic performance. Also, that parental educational background influences pupils’ academic performance to a very high extent. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the school management and teachers should help to sensitize the parents on the importance of the family on the pupils’ holistic formation especially their academic performance.